Turismo en Jujuy , Argentina
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History
Ruinas de Pucara de Tilcara
 
Ruinas de Pucara de Tilcara
 
Ruinasde Pucara de Tilcara
 
Antigu cementerio en Jujuy
 
Pucara de Tilcara
 

The early inhabitants were the Omaguacas, Ocloyas and the Jujuyes. The Omaguacas were agricultural people but they were also weavers and Artisans. The centers were Tilcara and Humahuaca, there were ,among several tribes, the Uquias, Purmamarcas, Tilcaras, Tumbayas, Tilianes, Yalas, Cuyes, Quilatas, Chilchas, Casavindos and close to San Salvador the Argamatas. The Ocloyas, in spite of being kin to the Omaguacas, were located in the valley of Ocloyas, this group were made up of the following tribes: the Quispiras, the Tactacas, the Tilcalaicos, the Estoybalos, the Panayas, the Opras and Tilicondes. Near the border with Chaco, the Apanatas, the Amanatas, the Osas, the Gaipetes and the Paipayas lived. The families of the Jujyes were made up by several groups like the Chirimanos, Pelichicos, Palomos and Churumatas.

The Spanish penetration offered a strong resistance on the part of the native tribes. Diego de Almagro attempted twice to invade the territory. The first attempt was in 1536, many men were lost so he was compelled to withdraw to Chile. Seven years later, he tried again but he was beaten at Quebrada de Humahuaca, his head was placed on the point of an arrow.

The following years, there were difficulties with the Aborigines. In 1563, the conquerors had to abandon the city of the Nieva, near the present San Salvador of Jujuy, the same happened in 1575 with the city of San Francisco de Alava. In spite of the difficulties, the conquerors could subdue the Indians. Three forts were built: the Hernan Gomez, the Grande, and the Palpala, between the access of the Quebrada de Humahuaca and the valley which the Spanish called Xuxuy or Jujuy. In 1593 Francisco de Argarañaz y Murgia founded San Salvador de Velazco in the valley of Jujuy, the present capital of the province.

In the XVII century, Jujuy suffered from some rebellions from the Calchaquies; however, they did not succeed, due to its strategic situation, because it was a link between the Rio de La Plata and Alto Peru. This factor was remarkable when the Armies of the north and the Spanish ; the Quebrada de Humahuaca was one of the main protagonists. General Manuel Belgrano made his men fight against the Spanish so his men had time to retreat. The retreat must be complete so the Realists would not have any chances. When Pio Tristan went into the city of San Salvador of Jujuy, the city was empty, the people had left it with the army ; this is known in the history of the country as the "Exile of the people from Jujuy".

Jujuy suffered eleven Spanish invasions. After 124 battles, the frontier was kept by the people from Jujuy; Güemes kept the Royalists at bay so they were defeated before they met San Martin. On May 6 Th., Güemes was appointed governor of the province of Salta, Jujuy accepted the appointment but it was annoyed because it had not consulted beforehand. There were some frictions between the two provinces. In 1834, The Lieutenant colonel Jose Maria Fascio, major of the city of Jujuy summoned an open meeting (Cabildo Abierto). There, the people decided to appoint Fascio governor of Jujuy.. The governor of Salta: De la Torre did not accept it so there was a fight between people from Jujuy and Salta. Fascio won the battle and the province consolidated its position, becoming independent.

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