| For the North it limits with the region of Whose and the plain pampeana, for the West and the South with the Andean Patagonia and Chile and for the East their limit is the Argentinean sea. It extends until Magellan's strait, being prolonged southernly in the plains riograndenses of Tierra del Fuego, and for the This conforms under the level of the sea the continental platform that includes the islands Malvinas.
It is part of the oldest structural units in the country, they are in her manifestations of the crystalline basement that appears superficially in different areas, on which more modern marine and continental silts have been deposited and in last term a thick layer of smooth tehuelches or patagónicos, partially covered for new volcanic rocks, standing out the Jurassic and cretásicos silts on those that the main oil locations are located.
The current relief of the plateaus is consequence of a series of movements epirogénicos that didn't affect equally to the whole area, being able to distinguish plateaus and terraces, mountains, valleys and cañadones and depressions.
The plateaus, calls regionally pampas, are extensive horizontal plains whose borders form ravines of up to 200 m. To the West they are more frequent the basalt mantels that, more resistant to the erosion, they give to the profile of the plateau a characteristic feature: the call thatches. The terraces are plane, staggered surfaces, for those that you descends from the plateau toward the valleys and basins.
The fluvial valleys cross the plateaus almost traversely from their nascent ones in the lakes or the oriental edge of the Andes patagónicos until their outlet in the Atlantic. The rivers that form them, fed by the winter rains and the summery thaw, slip for wide and deep valleys, they are not navigable and several they have been taken advantage of hydraulically with the construction of reservoirs (Florentino Ameghino, Alicurá, El Chocón and other).
The cañadones is old fluvial valleys, generally of saline floor, disconnected of the current system that only take water in occasions; in these basins the water originates excellent pastizales. The mountains rise isolated in the West and they integrate the call system of the Patagónides. The depressions occupy extensions in ways and varied dimensions, some of them under the level of the sea.
The prevailing climate in the region is arid and cold, with western winds that at great speed blow. The inferior precipitations to 300 mm are winter and they take place in form of snow. A great contrast exists among the duration of the summery day (16 hours of light) and the winter one (8 hours) in the southern end of the region.
The dryness and the wind print to the vegetation an uniform character, prevailing the steppe arbustiva strongly grasped to the floor, in which the forms prevail in cushion. The riversides of the rivers can be accompanied by a mount of sallows, in gallery; in the humid first floor the mallines grows and in Tierra del Fuego the peat-bogs.
The conditions of the floor, the climate and the vegetation have determined the scarce poblamiento of the Patagonia. The most important resource is the cattle raising, with the extensive breeding of ovinos with practical trashumantes, prevailing the races Corriedale and Merino. This activity determined the establishment of ports on the coast, to assist its necessities, being resided later on in them, the refrigerating industry and in more recent times the fishing activity that includes the exploitation of algae, fish, crustaceans and marine mammals.
The agriculture is only possible in the areas that have watering, like in the valleys of the rivers Negro and Chubut and next to the lake Colhué Huapi. The fluvial oasis of more proportions is that of the high valley of the Río Negro where the big irrigation works allow the practice of the agriculture in great scale, with protected cultivations of the strong winds for curtains of poplars; taking place fruits of exceptional quality (apples, pears and vine) that they are exported or they industrialize in the place. It also exists an important horticultural production, being also sowed medic like forrajera.
The activity mining bill as main wealth to the petroleum whose area of more remarkable exploitation is that of Comodoro Rivadavia, being also locations in Neuquén (Plaza Huincul), Río Negro (Colonia Catriel), Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego. You also exploits coal, especially in Río Turbio, iron in Sierra Grande, upsets in Tierra del Fuego, uranium in Chubut, plaster, clay and caollín, among other minerals.
The industrialized areas are those of the high valley of the Río Negro and Comodoro Rivadavia and the most outstanding industries the petrochemistry, of the cement, of the aluminum (ALUAR), textile and derived of the fishing.