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Los guaranies
Los Jesuitas
Belgrano en la campaña  del Paraguay
Jose  de San Martín
Unitarios y  Federales

When the Spaniards arrived, the territory was inhabited by the Guaraní Indian Tribes. They were natives from the Guairá region placed to the west of the Paraná River. They belonged to one of the most diffused linguistic ethnic groups from the continent, the tupí-guaraní family, who dispersed from the Amazons to the north, till the outlet of the de la Plata River, to the south. At the end of 1587 Juan Torres de Vera y Aragón commissioned to Alonso de Vera and to Hernandarias de Saavedra to carry war equipments and bovine livestock towards the place known as "Siete Corrientes" on the "de la Palmas" River. On April 3rd, 1588, in Punta Arozati (Guayabos mountains, in Guarani language) a town called "San Juan de la Vera de las Siete Corrientes" was founded. As time passed its name became "Corrientes". In 1589, the priests Fray Luis de Bolaños, and Fray Alonso de San Buenaventura, took the Itati Virgin's image to the place, where it is today worshipped. The Guaraníes were defeated by Alonso de Vera, who after his death was followed by his son, who made it easier the establishment of the Jesuits, promoting the development of the cattle raising, the agriculture, and the trade, starting from the missions foundations in the region, that propitiated the growth of Corrientes, till they were expelled in 1767. In 1769 the mail service between Buenos Aires and Corrientes was established. In 1778, José de San Martín regarded as America's Liberator was born in Yapeyú. In 1807 Goya City was founded , in 1832, Mercedes City and in 1843 Paso de los Libres. Corrientes' population has actively taken part in the fights for the freedom and the independence of the homeland.

Some months after the May Revolution, in 1810, the Colonel Tomás de Rocamora, the Governor of the Old Jesuit Missions, swore to be loyal to the government assembly, when the region was excited due to the hostilities of Asunción's governor. The situation reached its climax when Manuel Belgrano, in charge of the expedition sent from Buenos Aires to Paraguay, passed along Corrientes founding several towns such as: Nuestra Señora del Pilar, Curuzú Cuatiá and Mandisoví, building churches and schools too. A lot of people from Corrientes enlisted Belgrano's troops. Corrientes took part in the fights between "unitarios" and "federales", being, during Rosas' Government an unitary base. During the Anglo-French blockade, the General Lavalle became powerful in Corrientes, defeating on April 10th, 1840, to Pascual Echagüe, Entre Ríos governor, but later on Lavalle was defeated in Sauce Grande town, Entre Ríos Province. On August 10th, 1840, Lavalle is displaced by the General José María Paz, who assumed the control of the correntinas troops, defeating in 1841 to Echagüe Governor. In 1847, Corrientes troops commanded by the General Juan Madariaga were defeated by Urquiza. After Rosas fall, Juan Pujol, a man from Corrientes, who had carried out an important role together with Urquiza, summoned a Constituent Congress that organized a temporary national government and that federalized Buenos Aires.

In 1862, the limit between Entre Ríos and Corrientes Province was settled. In 1865, Corrientes was involved in the Triple Alliance War, and it was invaded by Paraguayan troops. After some bloody battles, the allied armies began the invasion to Paraguay through Paso de la Patria. The Triple Alliance was integrated by Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. Paraguay had become an economic potency. An apparently limit conflict caused the five years confrontation that began in 1865 and finished in 1870. Paraguay's defeat caused the reduction of its population (75%) most of the survivors were children, women and old people. Paraguay also lost 150.000 Km2 of territory and it suffered an economic stagnation. In 1870, Ricardo Lopez Jordan, a leader from Entre Ríos rebelled against Buenos Aires. During the rebellion he became Corrientes Governor, but he was defeated by the troops sent by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, the National President. Ten years later, in 1880, the confrontation between Julio Argentino Roca and Carlos Tejedor derived in Corrientes Federal intervention. In 1885, the national troops defeated the rebellion led by the Colonel José Toledo. From Juan Ramón Vidal ascension to the government, the province was full of peace and progress. At the beginning of the XX Century, the Argentinean Northeast Railway arrived in Corrientes, the drinkable water service was carried out. The Colonization Law was sanctioned and Corrientes Bishopric was created. Sometime later, there were new federal interventions to the Province. Irigoyen ordered its intervention during its two presidencies. In 1945, Yapeyú was declared historical place and the ferrovial bridge was inaugurated. It joins Paso de los Libres with Uruguayana in Brazil. In 1973, the General Belgrano Bridge was inaugurated, it joins Corrientes and Resistencia Cities. In 1994 the Yacyretá Dam was inaugurated, the first turbine was set to work.

The Jesuits

The Jesuit Missions or reductions spread along Corrientes northeast; and along territories that nowadays belong to Paraguay, Uruguay and Brazil. The Jesuit worked between the end of the XVI Century and the middle of the XVIII Century. The first mission was founded in 1609. They occupied up to 300.000 Km2, there were about 30 towns or guaranies doctrines, where 50.000 aboriginals lived. They were exempt of paying taxes, that is why they evolved without the necessity of overloading with work to the natives. The times chronicles eulogized the harmony within them. The work was carried out happily and there was a communitary spirit among the natives, who learnt a lot of arts and crafts, the wooden carvings are outstanding ones. Towards 1630, the first "bandeirantes" attacks began. They were slaves' hunters who destroyed 13 towns during the following years. In 1643, the missions were authorized to form armies for their defense. In 1648 the Crown abolished the excuse of tributes. There were epidemics, political problems, etc, that contributed to the missions decline that began in 1730. In Europe, there was great distrust against the Jesuit Order, because it was said that they were the Crown's enemies. In 1758 they were expelled from Portugal, in 1764 from France and in 1767, Charles III expelled them from Spain and the Empire. The missions were plundered and their residents were captured as slaves.

The Guaraníes
There were several tribes organized in villages. The family had a patriarchal organization and they were led by a cacique. Their housings were communitary ones, and they were called "maloka". The economy was communitary too, they grew corn, manioc beans, pumpkin and cotton. They were excellent potters. They made two different types of ceramics, a plain one, painted in black and red on white, and another one that was corrugated, based on relieves, carried out with fingers. They made plates, glasses, pipes, funeral urns, and big recipients that were used to ferment the alcoholic drinks. Before the Jesuit's arrival, the Guarani believed in a superior being that shared its power with other mythological deities, to which they didn't worship. Nowadays they believe in fantastic beings that live in the forests and the rivers, among them we can mention the Yaguareté Abá, a very ferocious tiger-man; the Mboi yaguá, a snake with dog's head that lives in the tidelands; the Curupí, hairy man that is crawling during the nap time and who takes women and children with its exaggeratedly long virile member; the Caá Porá, a giant that devours humans and who smokes a pipe made o a skull, the Añá, the man of the darkness, the Yasi Yateré, blond bearded midget that kidnaps children and women, he is always nude and he has a gold cane to become invisible, the Pirá ñú, a fish with horse head that attacks the crafts; the E yara that becomes a flamingo to love girls. The typical guarani foods are: The yopará, stew made of corn, beans and manioc; the lmbaipí, grated corn, cooked in fat with onions and milk; the chipá guazú, grated corn with fat and milk wrapped in pirí leaves and cooked to the oven; the yaguá hacú, meat pieces fried with onions, garlic and rolled in toasted manioc flour; the soó apua cuéra, charque cooked in broth; the chipa's, manioc starch cakes, made of corn flour, fat and eggs, cooked to the oven on banana's tree leaves.
General José de San Martín

José de San Martín was born in Yapeyú, Corrientes Province, on February 25th, 1768. He got the help of Pueyrredon, "Director Supremo de la República", and he organized from Mendoza, an audacious attack to the Spanish forces that were still governing Chile. After crossing the Andean Mountain Range through four different passes along 21 days, he defeated the realists in Chacabuco (1817) and in Maipú (1818). He got the Chilean Independence, and then he prepared another attack. He embarked his army and he arrived at El Callao Port in Perú in 1821. The Spaniards abandoned Lima City without fighting and moved away to the mount aims. San Martín declared Perú's independence. Sometime later, he met Bolívar in Guayaquil, Bolívar had got the freedom of Venezuela, Ecuador, and Colombia. After the meeting, San Martín gave up everything, and two years later, he departed to Europe while Bolivar won in Ayacucho. He never returned to the countries he had liberated because he was displeased due to the country's civil conflicts. He died in France in 1850. His mortal remains are, at the moment, in a mausoleum in Buenos Aires City's Cathedral. The "Saint of the Sword" as he was called, symbolizes the republican virtues of the renouncement, the sacrifice, the humility and the indifference. There aren't towns or cities along the country that don't conmemorate him having monuments, squares, streets, etc having his name.

Viajoporargentina - Información turística sobre la República Argentina
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