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Population and Culture













Dibujo de Martín Fierro por J.C.. Castagnino













Present population


The province of Buenos Aires is the most populated in Argentina and the one that shows the highest degrees of populational growth, since it is the most important industrial urban center. It possesses, according to the census of the year, 12.594.974 inhabitants, almost 8.000.000 live in the Great Buenos Aires.

The Great Buenos Aires is formed by 22 sections which possess more than 24% of the total population of the country. In the rest of the province, about 14% of the total population of Argentina live. The Index of Illiteracy is one of the lowest at national level, reaching 2,4%.


Old Residents


The fossil remains found in several archaeological locations possess 11.000 years of antiquity. Tools, human beings remains, bones of animals of great size and objects belonging to that era were found.

The residents of that time would derive from the men who arrived in America from Asia through the strait of Bering. There were also remains of deer of the pampas, megaterio, animal that weighed until five tons and guanacos among others.

The main archaeological locations of the province of Buenos Aires are located in Arroyo Seco (Tres Arroyos), hill The China and Hill El Sombrero (Lobería), Cueva Tixi (General Pueyrredón), Monte Hermoso, La Moderna (Azul), Fortín Necochea (Lamadrid), Paso Otero (Necochea), La Toma (Coronel Pringles), Lagoon of Puan (Puan), and Los Chilenos (Tornquist).


The literature from Buenos Aires


The wealth in literature, was composed by poets, novelists, essayists and playwrights among others.

The anonymous payadores gave origin to alive ballads in works like "Long Ago and Far Away" by Guillermo Hudson. José Hernández's Martín Fierro, is one of the most important literary pieces in the country.

Toward the year 1915 the quantity of published copies amounted to several hundred thousand. Other outstanding writers are Ricardo Gutiérrez, from Arrecifes, Roberto Payró author of The marriage of Laucha, born in Mercedes.

Ricardo Güiraldes's with his "Segundo Sombra", Luis Cané with the "Romancero of the Rio de La Plata" or Eduardo Mallea with The Bay of Silence, enrich the culture of the province and of Argentina.


The music


The instrument which stands out among all the others is the guitar. It is the partner of the gaucho's, it played an important role until the present time. Styles like the milonga and the sad one are characteristic rhythms of the nostalgia characteristic of Buenos Aires.

The milonga integrated then to the tango, was interpreted by important singers .


The gaucho and the music


Previously to the agrarian colonization of 1855, the representative figure of the Argentina was the gaucho, who raised during the English invasions.

Traveler of the pampas, accompanied by his horse and in some occasions by the guitar. This man, formed his personality with the freedom, the nature, the music and the loneliness which only the Pampas can grant. Creator of the sad ones, the milongas and the tunes, as well as participant in the dances of the Gato, the Escondido, the Chacarera, the Huella, the Zamba and the Malambo. The music sprung from the elements which were impregnated in the culture of those times. Nowadays, its splendor is shown in the National Festival of Folk Music of Cosquín from 1961 up to the present.

Every year, many groups and soloists show their folk music gifts.


Popular customs: The mate


It is an infusion made of yerba mate (Paraguayan tea leaves), and sipped with a bombilla, the mate is a symbol of hospitality, friendship and generosity. It can be drunk sweet or bitter, alone or accompanied, if possible with friends. The herb consists of dry and milled leaves, it is placed inside a wooden hollow recipient, made of metal or pumpkin. Then a bombilla is introduced and water is poured into the recipient until it is filled with water. It is sipped by the bombilla. Then one drinks it until the water ends, it is given back to the cebador (person who pours the water into the recipient) so that the round goes on, filling the maté again with water and then giving it to another member of the group.


Characters from Buenos Aires


Florencio Molinas Campos


Was born on August 21, 1891, during his childhood, he lived in the farm The Matilde in Chajarí, in the town of Tuyú, province of Entre Rios. There he stayed up to his father's death in 1907. Before he was thirty years he married María Hortensia Palacios Avellaneda, with whom he had an only daughter Hortensia María Pelusa. He worked in the country property sale, and strolled with his paintings looking for the occasion to exhibit them, event which took place in 1926, when he could display his work in the Rural Society. His name would be bound for ever to the pampas landscape, to the gaucho's character, to whom he depicted accurately in a funny way, howerver he doesn't show lack of affection. The calendars which had his paintings were well known. Those works, between 1931 and 1934, and from 1940 to 1945 were requested by the Fábrica Argentina of Alpargatas. In 1937, he married again to Elvira Ponce Aguirre, "Elvirita" and after winning a scholarship of the National Commission of Culture, Molina Campos traveled to The United States where he achieved a great success. He displayed his works in the English Book of New York and later in the South American Gallery of this city. From 1942 on, he advised Walt Disney, and two years later he designed the almanacs for the company Minneapolis Moline. In 1953, he returned to The Argentina, living in the town of Moreno, in the province of Buenos Aires. He built with his own hands his house and a school for the children of the area. The painter and his wife taught and fed those childen with their own resources. The school survives with the name of Florencio Molina Campos -although it has been enlarged and transferred- to the entrance of the neighborhood Cascallares. In Moreno, in the corner Güemes and Victoria, the painter's Museum was inaugurated in 1979, where Pelusa, his daughter takes care of the material belonging to the painter.


José Hernández. (Laguna de Los Padres)


In the original house of José Hernández's reconstructed farm, there is a museum which keeps the relics of the past. Letters of San Martin, Rosas and Magellan are among its belongings, when the pampas were the main scenario in the history of the country. A collection of mates, spurs, every day use objects and carriages used by the gauchos of the area in the time of the fights against the malones (Indian raids) are added. This was the Argentine frontier, later on the general Roca carried out a campaign to the desert with which new limits were settled down. José Hernándezrecords this part of the history in his "Martín Fierro", one of the most important works of the Argentine literature, translated to 40 languages. In this property, the first mass celebrated in Spanish took place. It was on November 1965, at 8 in the morning after the Council Vatican II left for the history the occupation of the masses in Latin. The history of the old farm, where the museum is today, goes back to 1746, when amid the attacks of the Pampas and Tehuelches Indians, the Franciscan fathers Falkner and Cardiel lifted the Reduction of the Virgin of Pilar. A hundred years later, the siblings Martínez Castro founded the farm Laguna de Los Padres which extended to the territory which Magellan had called Tierra delos Humos and late Arenas Gordas. These lands are part of the city of Mar del Plata. José Hernández settled on this farm in the mid 1800, until in 1856, José Cohelo of Meyrelles founded a salt factory next to the sea, in the well-known place Punta Iglesia. Around that factory, residents settled down, and in 1874 Patricio Peralta Ramos founded the city of Mar del Plata which has become the main tourist attraction in the Atlantic coast. Below the museum, it isthe original structure of the Pilar's Reduction and the Jesuit mission whose archaeological remains are being found. Dutch pipes, bottles of gins and other drinks from England, sheep remains which mark the customs of the country men of that time are also added to the recently discovered remains.


The Taba game


The anklebone is called astragalus in anatomy, it is the bone of the back limbs of the oxen or bulls, which is well-known as paw. The taba has four faces, the biggest denominated meat or luck, the smallest call ass and both lateral, hole and gut. There are different kinds of tabas according to their weight: the light ones of 250 to 300 grams and the heavy ones of 350 grams on. The tabas which are used in the game are covered, it means that a handmade work has been done to the bone with metal ornaments which give it greater weight and they also allow to be nailed. These ornaments are made of copper, brass or even gold for the luck and of iron or steel for the denominated ass. The tabas can be dried off until all meat vestige disappear, then it is boiled in fat leaving dry the face of the luck.

Viajoporargentina - Información turística sobre la República Argentina
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